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Exercise 4f use none none creation toinclude none with nonec# barcode encode Exercise 4g iReport Application Exercise 4h Exercise 4i Key terms discussed in this chapter article redu none none ction acrolect adstrate basilect Celts, Celtic fringe colonial lag koin ization lexifier mesolect monophthongization preverbal markers reduplication rhotic 108. Language crossing an ocean: Old World and New World semi-creoles substrate superstrate Further reading The settleme none none nt history of the British Isles, and the external history of English in general, have been described in numerous language histories. One of the most successful, and still highly readable, accounts can be found in Baugh and Cable (2002); other recommendable ones (for non-specialists) include Barber (2000) and Fennell (2001). The idea of a possible Celtic influence on early (and presentday) English has been voiced most explicitly in a series of books entitled The Celtic Englishes (Tristram 1997 2006).

The dialects of England have been studied most systematically in a mid-twentieth-century project known as the Survey of English Dialects, with the Basic Material volumes providing lots of details for the specialist (Orton et al. 1962 71); the Linguistic Atlas of England shows distributions of regionally varying language forms in maps (Orton, Sanderson, and Widdowson 1978). Furthermore, various textbooks provide accessible accounts and insights (Francis 1983, Upton and Widdowson 2006; Trudgill 1990).

On Northern English, the main source to consult, a masterly discussion of the subject, is Katie Wales book (Wales 2006). With respect to American English, there are classic sources, most notably Mencken (1963), which focus on historical aspects and lexical choices. Algeo s (2001) collection provides perhaps the most comprehensive, if a slightly conservative, survey of traditional scholarship on the variety.

Tottie (2002) puts American English into its broader, cultural context, and Wolfram and Schilling-Estes (2005) is the most recommendable introduction from a sociolinguistic perspective. Wolfram and Ward (2006) is a very readable collection, geared towards a layperson audience, of short snippets which characterize a wide range of dialects of American English. 5 in Schneider (2007) provides a coherent history of the variety, and Schneider (2008) is an 800-page collection providing the most detailed descriptive accounts of the pronunciation and grammar characteristics of American and Caribbean varieties to date.

Algeo (2006) looks into subtle differences between British and American English, and Rohdenburg and Schl ter (2009) document grammatical differences between the two main varieties. Classic sources on regional differences in American English, notably on the level of vocabulary, are Kurath (1949) and Carver (1987). For dialect words the Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE; Cassidy et al.

1986 2002) is most recommendable. Labov et al. (2006) is the authoritative, if a highly sophisticated, source on current details of regional American pronunciation.

There is a host of books on African American English; amongst introductory texts, currently the market leader is Green (2002). For Southern American English, the collection by Nagle and Sanders (2003) gives a readable survey of current scholarship, and Pederson et al. s Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States (1986 91), in 7 volumes, documents just about every linguistic detail that one might be interested in.

Much more accessible, however, are entertaining popular 109. 4, section [4.3]. booklets lik none none e the one quoted from earlier, or Steve Mitchell s How to Speak Southern. Roberts (1988) is a very accessible survey of forms and functions of English and Creole in the Caribbean, and the same applies to Christie (2003) specifically for Jamaica. D Costa and Lalla (1989) is an interesting collection of historical texts from Jamaica, and Lalla and D Costa (1990) surveys this development historically.

Thelwell s novel, from which the above sample is quoted, makes wonderful reading and indirectly provides an understandable introduction and some exposure to Jamaican Creole; the 1972 movie, with the same title and starring Jimmy Cliff, which the novel was based on, is also highly recommendable. The language of the novel is analyzed in Schneider and Wagner (2006)..

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